October

October is the tenth month of the year in the Julian and Gregorian Calendars and the sixth of seven months to have a length of 31 days. The eighth month in the old Roman calendar, October retained its name (from the Latin ôctō meaning "eight") after January and February were inserted into the calendar that had originally been created by the Romans. In Ancient Rome, one of three Mundus patet would take place on October 5, Meditrinalia October 11, Augustalia on October 12, October Horse on October 15, and Armilustrium on October 19. These dates do not correspond to the modern Gregorian calendar. Among the Anglo-Saxons, it was known as Ƿinterfylleþ, because at this full moon (fylleþ) winter was supposed to begin.October is commonly associated with the season of autumn in the Northern hemisphere and with spring in the Southern hemisphere.

October is the tenth month of the year in the Julian and Gregorian Calendars and the sixth of seven months to have a length of 31 days. The eighth month in the old Roman calendar, October retained its name (from the Latin ôctō meaning "eight") after January and February were inserted into the calendar that had originally been created by the Romans. In Ancient Rome, one of three Mundus patet would take place on October 5, Meditrinalia October 11, Augustalia on October 12, October Horse on October 15, and Armilustrium on October 19. These dates do not correspond to the modern Gregorian calendar. Among the Anglo-Saxons, it was known as Ƿinterfylleþ, because at this full moon (fylleþ) winter was supposed to begin.October is commonly associated with the season of autumn in the Northern hemisphere and with spring in the Southern hemisphere.

October symbols

October's birthstones are the tourmaline and opal.

Its birth flower is the calendula.

The zodiac signs for this month are Libra (until October 22) and Scorpio (from October 23).

October observances

This list does not necessarily imply either official status or general observance.

Non-Gregorian observances: 2018 dates

(Please note that all Baha'i, Islamic, and Jewish observances begin at sundown prior to the date listed, and end at sundown of the date in question unless otherwise noted.)

October 1: Shemini Atzeret (Judaism, Public holiday in Israel)

October 2: Simchat Torah (Judaism, two day communities only)

October 5: Shia day of Mourning: Martyrdom of Imam Zain-ul-Abideen, 95 A.H. (Islam, Shia only)

October 6: Shabbat Mevorchim (Judaism)

October 9-10: Rosh Chodesh of Cheshvan (Judaism)

October 10: Two Shia Days of Remembrance (Islam, Shia only)

October 15: Bahab (Judaism, optional observance, starts at dawn)

October 16: V'tein Tal u-Matar (Judaism)

October 16: Shia day of remembrance: Birth of Imam Musa-e-Kazim, 128 A.H. (Islam, Shia only)

October 16: Yom HaAliyah (Israeli schools only)

October 18: Bahab (Judaism, optional observance, starts at dawn)

October 19: Multiple Shia days of remembrance (Islam, Shia only)

October 21: Rabin Day (Public holiday in Israel)

October 21: Shia day of remembrance: Birth of Janab-e-Salman-e-Farsi (Islam, Shia only)

October 22: Bahab (Judaism, optional observance, starts at dawn)

October 24: Poya (Buddhism, public holiday in Sri Lanka)

October 26: Shia day of remembrance:Martyrdom of Imam Ali Reza, 203 A.H. (Islam, Shia only)

October 29: Arba'een (Islam)

Month-long observances

In Catholic Church tradition, October is the Month of the Holy Rosary.

Breast Cancer Awareness Month

Health Literacy Month

International Walk to School Month

Medical Ultrasound Awareness Month

Rett Syndrome Awareness Month

World Blindness Awareness Month

United Kingdom

Black History Month

United States

The last two to three weeks in October (and, occasionally, the first week of November) are the only time of the year during which each of the "Big Four" major North American professional sports leagues schedule games; the National Basketball Association begins its preseason and about two weeks later starts the regular season, the National Hockey League is about one month into its regular season, the National Football League is about halfway through its regular season, and Major League Baseball is in its postseason with the League Championship Series and World Series. There have been 19 occasions in which all four leagues have played games on the same day (an occurrence popularly termed a "sports equinox"), with the most recent of these taking place on October 28, 2018. Additionally, the Canadian Football League is typically nearing the end of its regular season during this period, while Major League Soccer is beginning the MLS Cup Playoffs.

American Archives Month

National Adopt a Shelter Dog Month

National Arts & Humanities Month

National Bullying Prevention Month

National Cyber Security Awareness Month

National Domestic Violence Awareness Month

Filipino American History Month

Italian-American Heritage and Culture Month

LGBT History Month

Polish American Heritage Month

National Work and Family Month

United States, Health-related

American Pharmacist Month

Dwarfism/Little People Awareness Month

Eczema Awareness Month

National Dental Hygiene Month

National Healthy Lung Month

National Infertility Awareness Month

Liver Awareness Month

National Lupus Erythematosus Awareness Month

National Physical Therapy Month

National Spina Bifida Awareness Month

Sudden Infant Death Syndrome Awareness Month (United States)

United States, Culinary

National Pizza Month

National Popcorn Poppin’ Month

National Pork Month

National Seafood Month

Movable observances, 2018 dates

Oktoberfest celebrations (varies globally based on area)

International Walk to School Day: October 2

World Ballet Day: October 2

World College Radio Day: October 5

World Cerebral Palsy Day: October 6

Ada Lovelace Day: October 9 (International observance)

Astronomy Day: October 13

Earth Science Week: October 14-20 (United States)

Get Smart About Credit Day October 18 (United States)

Asexual Awareness Week October 21-27

First Monday: October 1

Child Health Day (United States)

Children's Day (Chile, Singapore)

Labour Day (Australian Capital Territory, New South Wales, South Australia, Queensland, Australia)

Peat Cutting Monday (Falkland Islands)

Thanksgiving (Saint Lucia)

World Architecture Day

World Habitat Day

First Tuesday: October 2

National Night Out (Florida and Texas, United States)

First Wednesday: October 3

Children's Day (Chile)

First Thursday: October 4

National Poetry Day (UK, Ireland)

First Friday: October 5

Children's Day (Singapore)

Lee National Denim Day (United States)

World Smile Day

First Full Week: October 7-13

Customer Service Week (Kenya, United States)

Mental Illness Awareness Week (United States)

First Sunday: October 7

Daylight saving time begins (Australia)

Day of Prayer for the Peace of Jerusalem (Pentecostal Christianity)

Father's Day (Luxembourg)

Grandparents Day (Queensland, Australia, United Kingdom)

Teachers' Day (Belarus, Latvia, Ukraine)

World Communion Sunday (Christianity)

Week of October 9: October 7-13

Fire Prevention Week (Canada, United States)

Fire Service Recognition Day (Canada), last day of Fire Prevention Week: October 14

Week of October 10: October 7-13

Fiji Week (Fiji)

Second Monday: October 8

Columbus Day (United States)

Indigenous Peoples' Day (Parts of the United States)

Native American Day (South Dakota, United States)

Fraternal Day (Alabama, United States)

Health and Sports Day (Japan)

Mother's Day (Malawi)

Norfolk Island Agricultural Show Day (Norfolk Island)

Thanksgiving (Canada)

National Day (Republic of China)

Second Wednesday: October 10

Policy Statement of Belgian Parliament (Belgium)

Second Thursday: October 11

World Sight Day

Second Friday: October 12

Arbor Day (Namibia)

World Egg Day

Second Saturday: October 13

International Migratory Bird Day (Mexico, Central and South America, and the Caribbean)

Home Movie Day (International observance)

National Tree Planting Day (Mongolia)

Second Sunday: October 14

National Grandparents Day (Germany, Hong Kong)

White Sunday (Tonga, Samoa)

Third Monday: October 15

Heroes' Day (Jamaica)

Mother's Day (Argentina)

Nanomonestotse (Native American communities)

Boss's Day (United States, Canada, Lithuania and Romania)

Wednesday of second full week in October: October 17

National Fossil Day (United States)

Third Thursday: October 18

International Credit Union Day

Spirit Day (International observance)

Third Saturday: October 20

Sweetest Day (United States)

Week of Fourth Wednesday: October 21-27

Children's Week (Australia)

Third Sunday: October 21

Teacher's Day (Brazil)

Mother's Day (Argentina)

Second to last Sunday: October 21

World Mission Sunday (Catholic Church)

Fourth Monday: October 22

Labour Day (New Zealand)

Fourth Wednesday: October 24

Children's Day (Australia)

Last Friday: October 26

National Bandanna Day (Australia)

Nevada Day (Nevada, United States)

Teacher's Day (Australia) (If the last Friday is on October 31, this holiday is moved to November 7)

Fourth Saturday: October 27

Children's Day (Malaysia)

Make a Difference Day (United States)

Saturday closest to October 26: October 27

Demetrius Saturday (Russian Orthodox Christianity)

Last Sunday: October 28

European Summer Time ends

Feast of Christ the King (Tridentine Mass Catholics)

Grandparents Day (New South Wales, Australia)

Last Monday: October 29

October Holiday (Ireland)

Fixed observances

October 1

Armed Forces Day (South Korea)

Children's Day (El Salvador, Guatemala, Sri Lanka)

Day of Prosecutors (Azerbaijan)

Continuance of German-American Heritage Months, which runs from September 15 – October 15 (United States)

Continuance of National Hispanic Heritage Month which runs from September 15 – October 15 (United States),

Ground Forces Day (Russia)

Independence Day (Cyprus)

Independence Day (Nigeria)

Independence Day (Palau)

Independence Day (Tuvalu)

International Coffee Day

International Day of Older Persons

International Music Day

Lincolnshire Day (United Kingdom)

National Day of the People's Republic of China (People's Republic of China)

Pancasila Sanctity Day (Indonesia)

Teacher's Day (Uzbekistan)

Unification Day (Cameroon)

World Vegetarian Day

October 2

Batik Day (Indonesia)

Feast of the Guardian Angels

National Grandparents Day (Italy)

Gandhi's birthday-related observances:

Gandhi Jayanti (India)

International Day of Non-Violence

World Day for Farmed Animals

Independence Day (Guinea)

October 3

Gaecheonjeol (South Korea)

German Unity Day (Germany)

National Day (Iraq)

Morazán Day (Honduras)

October 4

Cinnamon Roll Day (Sweden)

Day of Peace and Reconciliation (Mozambique)

Independence Day (Lesotho)

World Animal Day

The beginning of World Space Week (October 4–10)

October 5

Armed Forces Day (Indonesia)

Constitution Day (Vanuatu)

Engineer's Day (Bolivia)

International Day of No Prostitution

Republic Day (Portugal)

Teachers' Day (Pakistan)

Teachers' Day (Russia)

World Teachers' Day

October 6

Day of Commemoration and National Mourning (Turkmenistan)

Dukla Pass Victims Day (Slovakia)

German-American Day (United States)

Memorial Day for the Martyrs of Arad (Hungary)

National Noodle Day (United States)

Teachers' Day (Sri Lanka)

Yom Kippur War commemorations:

Armed Forces Day (Egypt)

Tishreen Liberation Day (Syria)

October 7

Our Lady of the Rosary

International Trigeminal Neuralgia Awareness Day

Teachers' Day (Laos)

October 8

Air Force Day (India)

Arbor Day (Namibia)

National Independence Day (Croatia)

Navy Day (Peru)

October 9

Hangul Day (South Korea)

Independence Day (Uganda)

Independence of Guayaquil (Ecuador)

Leif Erikson Day (United States, Iceland and Norway)

National Day of Commemorating the Holocaust (Romania)

Takayama Autumn Festival (Takayama, Japan)

World Post Day

Valencian Community Day (Spain)

October 10

Arbor Day (Poland)

Capital Liberation Day (Vietnam)

Double Ten Day (Taiwan)

Fiji Day (Fiji)

Finnish Literature Day (Finland)

Independence Day (Cuba)

Party Foundation Day (North Korea)

World Mental Health Day

October 11

General Pulaski Memorial Day (United States)

International Day of the Girl Child (International)

National Coming Out Day (multinational, including United States, United Kingdom and Switzerland among others)

Old Michaelmas Day (Celtic)

Revolution Day (Republic of Macedonia)

October 12

Freethought Day

October 13

October 14

World Standards Day

October 15

Breast Health Day (Europe)

Evacuation Day (Tunisia)

Global Handwashing Day

King Father's Commemoration Day (Cambodia)

National Latino AIDS Awareness Day (United States)

Pregnancy and Infant Loss Remembrance Day (United States and Canada)

Spirit Day (International observance)

Teachers' Day (Brazil)

White Cane Safety Day (United States)

October 16

World Food Day

October 17

October 18

Alaska Day (Alaska, United States)

Independence Day (Azerbaijan)

Necktie Day (Croatia)

Persons Day (Canada)

World Menopause Day

October 19

Constitution Day (Niue)

Mother Teresa Day (Albania)

October 20

Arbor Day (Czech Republic)

Heroes' Day (Kenya)

Revolution Day (Guatemala)

Vietnamese Women's Day (Vietnam)

World Osteoporosis Day

World Statistics Day

October 21

Apple Day (United Kingdom)

Armed Forces Day (Honduras)

Egyptian Naval Day (Egypt)

Indian Police Commemoration Day (India)

International Day of the Nacho

National Nurses' Day (Thailand)

Ndadaye Day (Burundi)

Overseas Chinese Day (Republic of China)

Trafalgar Day (the British Empire in the 19th and early 20th century)

October 22

Fechner Day (International observance)

International Caps Lock Day

International Stuttering Awareness Day

Jidai Matsuri (Kyoto, Japan)

Wombat Day (Australia)

October 23

Aviator's Day (Brazil)

Chulalongkorn Day (Thailand)

Day of the Macedonian Revolutionary Struggle (Republic of Macedonia)

Liberation Day (Libya)

Mole Day (International observance)

National Day (Hungary)

Paris Peace Agreement Day (Cambodia)

October 24

Azad Kashmir Day (Pakistan)

Day of Special Forces of the Armed Forces (Russia)

Food Day (United States)

Independence Day (Zambia)

Suez Day (Egypt)

United Nations Day (International observance)

World Development Information Day

World Polio Day

October 25

Armed Forces Day (Romania)

Constitution Day (Lithuania)

Customs Officer's Day (Russia)

Day of the Basque Country (Basque Country)

Retrocession Day (Taiwan)

Sovereignty Day (Slovenia)

Thanksgiving Day (Grenada)

The Hallowing of Nestorius (Eastern Orthodox Christianity)

October 26

Accession Day (Jammu and Kashmir)

Angam Day (Nauru)

Armed Forces Day (Benin)

Intersex Awareness Day (United States)

National Day (Austria)

October 27

Black Cat Appreciation Day (United Kingdom)

Černová Tragedy Day (Slovakia)

Flag Day (Greece)

Independence Day (Saint Vincent and the Grenadines)

Independence Day (Turkmenistan)

Navy Day (United States) (unofficial, official date is October 13)

World Day for Audiovisual Heritage

October 28

Day of the Establishment of an Independent Czecho-Slovak State (Czech Republic and Slovakia)

International Animation Day

Ohi Day (Greece, Cyprus)

Prefectural Earthquake Disaster Prevention Day (Gifu Prefecture, Japan)

Youth Pledge Day (Indonesia)

October 29

Coronation Day (Cambodia)

Cyrus the Great Day (Iran)

National Cat Day (United States)

Republic Day (Turkey)

World Stroke Day

October 30

Anniversary of the Declaration of the Slovak Nation (Slovakia)

Day of Remembrance of the Victims of Political Repressions (former Soviet republics, except Ukraine)

Indonesian Banknote Day (Indonesia)

International Orthopaedic Nurses Day

Mischief Night (United States and Canada)

Beggars Night (certain regions of the United States)

Devil's Night (Michigan, United States)

Thevar Jayanthi (Thevar community, India)

October 31

Start of Allhallowtide October 31 – November 6

The first day of the Day of the Dead, celebrated until November 2 (Mexico)

Día de la Canción Criolla (Peru)

Eve of Winter, the eve of the first day of winter in the Northern hemisphere:

Allantide (Cornwall, United Kingdom)

Halloween (English-speaking countries, also in other locations)

Hop-tu-Naa (Isle of Man, United Kingdom)

Samhain in the Northern Hemisphere, Beltane in the Southern Hemisphere; begins on sunset of October 31 (Gaels, Welsh people and Neopagan Wheel of the Year)

Girl Scouts Founders Day (United States)

King Father's Birthday (Cambodia)

National Unity Day (India)

Reformation Day (Slovenia, parts of Germany, Chile, El Salvador, Dominican Republic, Evangelical Churches and Lutheran Churches)

Saci day (Brazil)

World Savings Day

Miscellaneous

Eric Whitacre composed a piece based on this month, titled October.

Neil Gaiman wrote a story personifying the month, titled "October in the Chair", for his 2006 collection Fragile Things.

Ray Bradbury published a collection of short stories titled The October Country in 1955.

External links