December

December is the twelfth and final month of the year in the Julian and Gregorian Calendars and is the seventh and last of seven months to have a length of 31 days.

December is the twelfth and final month of the year in the Julian and Gregorian Calendars and is the seventh and last of seven months to have a length of 31 days.

December got its name from the Latin word decem (meaning ten) because it was originally the tenth month of the year in the Roman calendar, which began in March. The winter days following December were not included as part of any month. Later, the months of January and February were created out of the monthless period and added to the beginning of the calendar, but December retained its name.In Ancient Rome, as one of the four Agonalia, this day in honor of Sol Indiges was held on December 11, as was Septimontium. Dies natalis (birthday) was held at the temple of Tellus on December 13, Consualia was held on December 15, Saturnalia was held December 17–23, Opiconsivia was held on December 19, Divalia was held on December 21, Larentalia was held on December 23, and the dies natalis of Sol Invictus was held on December 25. These dates do not correspond to the modern Gregorian calendar.

The Anglo-Saxons referred to December–January as Ġēolamonaþ (modern English: "Yule month"). The French Republican Calendar contained December within the months of Frimaire and Nivôse.

Astronomy

December contains the winter solstice in the Northern Hemisphere, the day with the fewest daylight hours, and the summer solstice in the Southern Hemisphere, the day with the most daylight hours (excluding polar regions in both cases). December in the Northern Hemisphere is the seasonal equivalent to June in the Southern Hemisphere and vice versa. In the Northern hemisphere, the beginning of the astronomical winter is traditionally 21 December or the date of the solstice.

Meteor showers occurring in December are the Andromedids (September 25 – December 6, peaking around November 9), the Canis-Minorids (December 4 – December 15, peaking around December 10–11), the Coma Berenicids (December 12 to December 23, peaking around December 16), the Delta Cancrids (December 14 to February 14, the main shower from January 1 to January 24, peaking on January 17), the Geminids (December 13–14), the Monocerotids (December 7 to December 20, peaking on December 9. This shower can also start in November), the Phoenicids (November 29 to December 9, with a peak occurring around 5/6 December), the Quadrantids (typically a January shower but can also start in December), the Sigma Hydrids (December 4–15), and the Ursids (December 17-to December 25/26, peaking around December 22).

Astrology

The zodiac signs for the month of December are Sagittarius (until December 21) and Capricorn (December 22 onwards).

December symbols

December's birth flower is{Ashwin} the narcissus.

December's birthstones are the turquoise, zircon, and tanzanite.

Observances

This list does not necessarily imply either official status or general observance.

Non-Gregorian observances: 2018 dates

(Please note that all Baha'i, Islamic, and Jewish observances begin at sundown prior to the date listed, and end at sundown of the date in question unless otherwise noted.)

December 2-10: Hanukkah (Jewish calendar)

December 8: Shabbat Mevorchim (Jewish calendar)

December 8-9: Rosh Chodesh of Tevet (Jewish calendar)

December 9: Qaumee Dhuvas (Maldives National Day) (Islamic calendar)

December 13: 5 Tevet (Jewish calendar, Chabad sect only)

December 16: Shia day of Mourning: Martyrdom of Imam Hasan Askari, 260 A.H. (Islamic calendar)

December 18: Tenth of Tevet (Jewish calendar)

December 19: Urs of Abdul-Qadir Gilani (Islamic calendar)

December 22: Khorram rooz (Iranian calendar)

December 22: Poya (Buddhism, public holiday in Sri Lanka)

Month-long observances

In Catholic tradition, December is the Month of the Advent of Christ.

National Egg Nog Month (United States)

National Impaired Driving Prevention Month (United States)

National Fruit Cake Month (United States)

National Pear Month (United States)

No Gender December (International)

Movable observances: 2018 dates

Small Business Saturday UK: December 1

Human Rights and Peace Day (Kiribati): December 9

Sunday within the Octave of Christmas: December 30Last Week of November: November 25 – December 1

AIDS Awareness Week (Canada)First Sunday: December 2

First Presidency's Christmas Devotional (The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints)

Good Neighborliness Day (Turkmenistan)

Sindhi Cultural Day (Sindhi diaspora)Fourth Sunday before Christmas Day: December 2

Advent Sunday (start of Advent, Western Christianity)First Monday in December and following 7 days: December 3-9

Chalica (Unitarian UniversalismFirst Friday: December 7

Farmer's Day (Ghana)

Gospel Day (Marshall Islands)Sunday two weeks before Christmas: December 9

Detinjci (Serbia)Second Monday: December 10

Green Monday

National Tree Planting Day (Malawi)December 15, unless the date falls on a Sunday, then December 16: December 15

Koninkrijksdag (Kingdom of the Netherlands)Second-final Sunday before Christmas Day: December 16

Gaudete Sunday (Western Christianity)Thursday before Christmas: December 20

Chewidden Thursday (Cornwall) (Thursday of the last full week before Christmas)

National Regifting Day (United States)Winter Solstice: December 21

Blue Christmas (holiday)

Brumalia (Ancient Rome)

Dongzhi Festival (Asia)

Global Orgasm

Korochun (Slavic)

Midsummer in the Southern Hemisphere. (Contemporary Paganism)

Sanghamitta Day (Theravada Buddhism)

Shalako (Zuni)

Yaldā (Iran)

Yule in the Northern Hemisphere (Contemporary Paganism)

Ziemassvētki (Latvia)December 22, unless that date is a Sunday, in which case it's moved to the 23rd: December 22

Forefathers' Day (Plymouth, Massachusetts)'Last Saturday before Christmas: December 22

Super Saturday (United States)Sunday before Christmas: December 23

Honesty Day (Italy)December 26, unless that day is a Sunday, in which case the 27th: December 26

Boxing Day (Commonwealth of Nations)

Day of Good Will (South Africa and Namibia)

Family Day (Vanuatu)

Thanksgiving (Solomon Islands)

Start of Boxing WeekLast Friday before Christmas: December 28

Black Friday (partying) (United Kingdom)Sunday after Christmas: December 30

Christmas Sunday (Western Christianity)

Fixed observances

November 25 – December 10: 16 Days of Activism against Gender-based Violence

December 1

Battle of the Sinop Day (Russia)

Bifocals at the Monitor Day (unofficial)

Damrong Rajanubhab Day (Thailand)

Day of Restoration of Independence (Portugal)

Eat A Red Apple Day (United States)

Feast for Death of Aleister Crowley (Thelema)

First President Day (Kazakhstan)

Freedom and Democracy Day (Chad)

Great Union Day (Romania)

Military Abolition Day (Costa Rica)

National Day (Myanmar)

Republic Day (Central African Republic)

Restoration of Independence Day (Portugal)

Rosa Parks Day (Ohio and Oregon, United States)

Self-governance Day (Iceland)

Teachers' Day (Panama)

World AIDS Day

Day Without Art

December 2

Armed Forces Day (Cuba)

International Day for the Abolition of Slavery

National Day (Laos)

National Day (United Arab Emirates)

National Fritters Day (United States)

December 3

Doctors' Day (Cuba)

United Nations' International Day of Persons with Disabilities

December 4

National Cookie Day (United States)

Navy Day (India)

Saint Barbara's Day-related observances:

Barbórka (Poland)

Eid il-Burbara (Russia, Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, Palestine, Syria, Turkey)

Thai Environment Day (Thailand)

Tupou I Day (Tonga)

December 5

Bathtub Party Day (unofficial)

Children's Day (Suriname)

Day of the Ninja (unofficial)

Day of Military Honour – Battle of Moscow (Russia)

Discovery Day (Haiti and Dominican Republic)

International Volunteer Day for Economic and Social Development

Klozum (Schiermonnikoog, Netherlands)

Saint Nicholas Eve (Belgium, Czech Republic, Slovakia, the Netherlands, Hungary, Romania, Germany, Poland and the UK)

Krampusnacht (Austria)

King's Birthday (Thailand)

Repeal Day (United States)

World Soil Day

December 6

Anniversary of the Founding of Quito (Ecuador)

Armed Forces Day (Ukraine)

Constitution Day (Spain)

Day of the Ministry of Communications and Information Technologies of Azerbaijan

Independence Day of Finland

National Day of Remembrance and Action on Violence Against Women (Canada)

St Nicholas Day (Western Christianity)

December 7

Armed Forces Flag Day (India

Eve of the Immaculate Conception (Western Christianity) and related observances:

Day of the Little Candles, begins after sunset (Colombia)

Quema del Diablo, begins after sunset. (Guatemala)

Flag Land Base Day (Scientology)

International Civil Aviation Day

National Heroes Day (East Timor)

National Pearl Harbor Remembrance Day (United States)

Spitak Remembrance Day (Armenia)

December 8

Battle Day (Falkland Islands)

Bodhi Day (Japan)

CARICOM–Cuba Day (Caribbean Community (CARICOM) and Cuba)

Constitution Day (Romania)

Constitution Day (Uzbekistan)

Day of Finnish Music (Finland)

Feast of the Immaculate Conception (public holiday in several countries, a holy day of obligation in others), and its related observances:

Conception of the Blessed Virgin Mary (Anglican Communion), lesser commemoration

Christmas on Campus (University of Dayton)

Mother's Day (Panama)

Festa da Conceição da Praia, celebrating Yemanjá, Queen of the Ocean (Salvador, Bahia)

Festival of Lights (Lyon)

Pansexual/Panromantic Pride Day

Saint Clement of Ohrid Day (Macedonia)

National Brownie Day (United States)

National Youth Day (Albania)

December 9

Anna's Day (Sweden and Finland)

Feast of the Conception of the Most Holy Theotokos by St. Anne (Eastern Orthodox)

Independence Day (Tanzania)

International Anti-Corruption Day

National Heroes Day (Antigua and Barbuda)

National Pastry Day (United States)

Navy Day (Sri Lanka)

Remembrance for Egill Skallagrímsson (The Troth)

Yuri's Day in the Autumn (Russian Orthodox Church)

December 10

Alfred Nobel Day (Sweden)

Constitution Day (Thailand)

Human Rights Day (International)

December 11

Human Rights and Peace Day (Kiribati)

Indiana Day (Indiana, United States)

National Have a Bagel Day (United States)

National Noodle Ring Day (United States)

National Tango Day (Argentina)

Pampanga Day (Pampanga province, Philippines)

Republic Day (Burkina Faso)

December 12

Constitution Day (Russia)

Croatian Air Force Day (Croatia)

Day of Neutrality (Turkmenistan)

Feast of the Apparition of Our Lady of Guadalupe (Mexico)

Feast of Masá'il Bahá'í calendar (only if Bahá'í Naw-Rúz falls on March 21, which it does for 2015)

Kanji Day (Japan)

Jamhuri Day (Kenya)

December 13

Acadian Remembrance Day (Acadians)

National Day (Saint Lucia)

National Ice Cream Day (United States)

Pick a Pathologist Pal Day

Republic Day (Malta)

Sailor's Day (Brazil)

Saint Lucy's Day (mainly Scandinavia, some regions of Italy)

December 14

Alabama Day (Alabama)

Forty-seven Ronin Remembrance Day (Sengaku-ji, Tokyo)

Martyred Intellectuals Day (Bangladesh)

Monkey Day (International)

December 15

Bill of Rights Day (United States)

2nd Amendment Day (South Carolina)

Cat Herders Day

Homecoming Day (Alderney)

International Tea Day

National Cupcake Day (United States)

Remembrance Day of Journalists Killed in the Line of Duty (Russia)

Zamenhof Day (International Esperanto Community)

December 16

Barbie and Barney Backlash Day

National Day (Kingdom of Bahrain)

Victory day of Bangladesh

Day of Reconciliation in South Africa

December 17

Accession Day (Bahrain)

International Day to End Violence Against Sex Workers

National Day (Bhutan)

National Maple Syrup Day (United States)

Pan American Aviation Day (United States)

Wright Brothers Day (United States)

December 18

National Muffin Day (Brazil)

December 19

Goa Liberation Day (Goa, India)

National Heroes and Heroines Day (Anguilla)

December 20

National Sangria Day (United States)

December 21

First day of winter (some cultures)

Humbug Day

National Hamburger Day (United States)

December 22

Armed Forces Day (Vietnam)

Mother's Day (Indonesia)

National Date Nut Bread Day (United States)

National Mathematics Day (India)

Teachers' Day (Cuba)

Unity Day (Zimbabwe)

December 23

The Emperor's Birthday, a national holiday in Japan

Festivus

HumanLight (Humanism)

December 24

Christmas Eve

Aðfangadagskvöld, the day when the 13th and the last Yule Lad arrives to towns. (Iceland)

Feast of the Seven Fishes (Italy)

Juleaften (Denmark)/Julaften (Norway)/Julafton (Sweden)

Nittel Nacht (certain Orthodox Jewish denominations)

Nochebuena (Spain and Spanish-speaking countries)

The Declaration of Christmas Peace (Old Great Square of Turku, Finland's official Christmas City)

Day of Military Honour – Siege of Ismail (Russia)

Independence Day (Libya)

Mōdraniht (Anglo-Saxon paganism)

National Eggnog Day (United States)

December 25

Children's Day (Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Equatorial Guinea, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Gabon, Republic of Congo)

Christmas (Christianity)

Constitution Day (Taiwan)

Good Governance Day (India)

Malkh-Festival (Nakh peoples of Chechnya and Ingushetia)

Newtonmas (Atheist community)

Quaid-e-Azam's Day (Pakistan)

Takanakuy (Chumbivilcas Province, Peru)

National Pumpkin Pie Day (United States)

December 26

Boxing Day

Saint Stephen's Day

Day of Goodwill

Kwanzaa (December 26 to January 1)

Independence Day in Slovenia – Independence and Unity Day

December 27

Independence and Unity Day (Slovenia)

Mauro Hamza Day (Houston, Texas)

Mummer's Day (Padstow, Cornwall)

St. Stephen's Day (public holiday in Alsace, Austria, Catalonia, Croatia, Czech Republic, Germany, Hong Kong, Italy, Ireland, Luxembourg, Poland, Slovakia and Switzerland)

Father's Day (Bulgaria)

Kwanzaa December 27 – January 1 (African-American community, United States)

The first day of Junkanoo street parade, the second day is on the New Year's Day (The Bahamas)

National Fruitcake Day (United States)

Wren Day (Ireland, Isle of Man)

Zartosht No-Diso (Zoroastrianism)

December 28

Proclamation Day in South Australia

December 29

Tick Tock Day

December 30

Day of the Declaration of Slovakia as an Independent Ecclesiastic Province (Slovakia)

Falling Needles Family Fest

Freedom Day (Church of Scientology)

National Bicarbonate of Soda Day (United States)

Rizal Day (Philippines)

December 31

International Solidarity Day (Azerbaijan)

National Champagne Day (United States)

New Year's Eve

Bisperás ng Bagong Taón (Philippines)

Ōmisoka (Japan)

Start of Hogmanay (Scotland) December 31 – January 1, in some cases until January 2.

References

See also

Historical anniversaries

Undecimber